PTypes - Personality Types

Idealist Rationalist Traditionalist Hedonist

The Hedonist (sanguine) Temperament

The Hypomanic Idealized Image

"Artisans pride themselves on being unconventional, bold, and spontaneous" (


The Hedonist type prefers pleasure and disprefers pain.The Hedonist prefers:

David Keirsey reconfigured the typology created by Isabel Briggs Myers to a scheme of four groups of four types that corresponds to the classic four temperaments. In Please Understand Me (1984), he defined one group as the Artisan temperament, which I call the Hedonist:

Hedonists want to be free, not tied down, confined, or obligated, to do as they wish when they wish, to enjoy today, to be impulsive, to have a life of action which repudiates long term goals, objectives, or plans, to be active just to be active, to do what they feel the urge to do, to experience excitement, to be seen by others as being free to act, as free spirits, to be exciting, optimistic, cheerful, light-hearted, and full of fun (Keirsey, 1984, pp. 30-39; cf., Heineman (SP)).

The pathological representation of the Hedonist temperament type is the Hypomanic Personality.

Areas of interest

Many of the following additional topics originated in ideas expressed by David Keirsey in Please Understand Me.

action, action heroes, action jobs, adventure, airplanes, art, arts, athletes, bartenders, bellhops, boredom, brushes, building dams, building freeways, building mines, building skyscrapers, building trades, bulldozers, card sharps, charming, chisels, construction work, conversationalists, crises, dancers, detectives, Dionysus, dockworkers, dozen yellow roses, driving,



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Positive attributes: Amusing, animated, bold, bouncy, charismatic, charming, cheerful, competitive, conceiving, convincing, cute, delightful, demonstrative, eager, effective, elated, entertaining, enthusiastic, excited, expander, expressive, extrovert, fraternal, fresh, friendly, funny, generous, gregarious, imaginative, immediate, impactful, impressive, influencing, innovative, inspiring, lively, mixes easily, motivating, nervy, optimistic, persuasive, physical, playful, popular, positive, practical, prodigious, promoter, refreshing, risk-taking, sociable, sophisticated, spirited, spontaneous, stimulating, talker, thrilled, urbane, winning, witty, worldly.

Negative attributes: ambitious, angered-easily, buoyant, brassy, careless, changeable, cynical, dilettante, disorganized, egotistical, embroidering the truth, exaggerates, excitable, flighty, forgetful, haphazard, impetuous, impulsive, inconsistent, interrupts, loud, manipulative, messy, naive, narcissistic, optimistic, permissive, reacting, reckless, repetitious, restless, scatterbrained, seek limelight, show-off, superficial, talkative, undisciplined, unpredictable, unrealistic, unreliable, wants credit.

Noteworthy Examples

"Alexander Portnoy," Paul Allen, Lou Andreas-Salome, Prince Andrew, Lauren Bacall, Lucille Ball, Honore de Balzac, Albert Bandura, Daniel Barenboim, Ludwig van Beethoven, John Belushi, Leonard Bernstein, David Bowie, Mel Brooks, Helen Gurley Brown, Ted Bundy, Aaron Burr, Dick Butkus, George Gordon Lord Byron, Sid Caesar, Jim Carrey, Giacomo Casanova, Neal Cassady, Raymond Cattell, Prince Charles, Winston Churchill, Dick Clark, Bill Clinton, Joan Collins, Sean Connery, Joseph Conrad, Francis Ford Coppola, Noel Coward, Cindy Crawford, Joan Crawford, George Armstrong Custer, Princess Diane, Leonardo DiCaprio, Marlene Dietrich, Phyllis Diller, Joe DiMaggio, "Don Juan," Patty Duke, Lawrence Durrell, Amelia Earhart, Clint Eastwood, Albert Ellis, Werner Erhard, Sarah Ferguson, Amy Fisher, Zelda Fitzgerald, Larry Flynt, Malcolm Forbes, Benjamin Franklin, Clark Gable, Paul Gauguin, Melissa Gilbert, Gary Gilmore, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Vincent van Gogh, Cary Grant, Tonya Harding, Joseph Heller, Ernest Hemingway, Bob Hope, Karen Horney, Howard Hughes, Whitney Huston, Andrew Jackson, "James Bond," Kay Redfield Jamison, Bruce Jenner, Steve Jobs, Elton John, Tom Jones, Erica Jong, Janis Joplin, Carl Jung, Andy Kaufman, Jack Kemp, John F. Kennedy, John F. Kennedy Jr., Melanie Klein, Heinz Kohut, Judith Krantz, Michael Landon, T. E. Lawrence, Timothy Leary, Sinclair Lewis, Liberace, John Locke, Malcolm Lowry, Thomas Mann, Abraham Maslow, Paul McCartney, Bette Midler, Arthur Miller, Henry Miller, Liza Minnelli, Joe Montana, Wolfgang A. Mozart, Jack Nicholson, David Niven, Thomas Paine, Fritz Perls, Regis Philbin, George Plimpton, Cole Porter, Elvis Presley, Otto Rank, Christopher Reeve, Wilhelm Reich, Mary Lou Retton, Burt Reynolds, Rembrandt van Rijn, Joan Rivers, Tony Robbins, Mickey Rooney, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, Judith Rossner, Philip Roth, Arthur Rubenstein, Bertrand Russell, Martin Scorsese, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Cybill Shepherd, Brooke Shields, O. J. Simpson, Sitting Bull, Grace Slick, Steven Spielberg, Mark Spitz, Silvester Stallone, Wilhelm Stekel, Howard Stern, Sharon Stone, Jacqueline Susann, Elizabeth Taylor, Leo Tolstoy, Lily Tomlin, John Travolta, Donald Trump, John Tyler, John Updike, Peter Ustinov, Voltaire, Richard Wagner, Denzel Washington, Mae West, Vanna White, Oscar Wilde, Robin Williams, Jonathan Winters, Shelley Winters.

Index of noteworthy examples


Self-Confident Adventurous Mercurial Exuberant

Keirsey, David, and Marilyn Bates (1984). Please understand me: character and temperament types. 4th ed. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis [distributer].

* Sources of Attributes

The positive and negative attributes were compiled from the following four dimension personality instruments:

Littauer, Florence (1992). Personality plus : how to understand others by understanding yourself. Rev. and expanded ed. Tarrytown, NY: F.H. Revell.

Williams, Xandria (1996). The four temperments: how to achieve love, health, and happiness by understanding yourself and the people around you. New York: St. Martin's.

Merrill, David W. and Roger H. Reid (1981). Personal styles and effective performance : make your style work for you. Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Co.

Keirsey, David (1995). Portraits of temperament. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis.

Social Style and Conflict :

Career/LifeSkills Resources Inc. > True Colors :

Hartmann, Taylor (1998). The color code : a new way to see yourself, your relationships, and life. New York: Scribner.

Disc Interconsult - Personality Profiling: DISC History :

Was, Mike, Alan Combs and Julie N. Combs (1999). Finding your strong suit: how to read your spouse, boss, partner, lover, opponent, & yourself. Los Angeles: Renaissance Books.

Idealist Rationalist Traditionalist Hedonist

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