|PTypes - Personality Types
Core Beliefs: Irrational Beliefs that Influence and Help Maintain Emotional Disturbance
From A Brief Introduction to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy by Wayne Froggatt.
"The rules people live by
"Underlying what we think in specific situations
are what is known as 'core beliefs', which are
underlying rules that guide how people react to
the events and circumstances in their lives in general.
Ellis proposes that a small number of core
beliefs underlie most unhelpful emotions and behaviours.
Here is a sample list [see Ellis, 1994, pp. 106-39 for a discussion of them] of such 'rules for
1. I need love and approval from those significant
to me — and I must avoid disapproval
from any source.
2. To be worthwhile as a person I must achieve,
succeed at whatever I do, and make no mistakes.
3. People should always do the right thing.
When they behave obnoxiously, unfairly or
selfishly, they must be blamed and punished.
4. Things must be the way I want them to be,
otherwise life will be intolerable.
5. My unhappiness is caused by things that are
outside my control — so there is little I can do
to feel any better.
6. I must worry about things that could be dangerous,
unpleasant or frightening — otherwise
they might happen.
7. Because they are too much to bear, I must
avoid life's difficulties, unpleasantness, and
8. Everyone needs to depend on someone
stronger than themselves.
9. Events in my past are the cause of my problems
— and they continue to influence my
feelings and behaviours now.
10. I should become upset when other people
have problems, and feel unhappy when
11. I shouldn't have to feel discomfort and pain — I
can't stand them and must avoid them at all
12. Every problem should have an ideal solution —
and it's intolerable when one can't be found."
Ellis (pg. 107) has said that these irrational beliefs can be summarized under three main musturbatory headings.
Albert Ellis’ irrational beliefs - Nelson Binggeli
"Shoulds" and "Claims" in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Core Beliefs in Personality Disorder
Albert Ellis (1994). Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy, Revised and Updated New York: Birch Lane.