Toward the Core Vices of the Types
The cause of our problems and troubles, and the impediment to our happiness, is our vicious, or evil, disposition of character.
Vices are in our power. See Seddon (pp. 40-41). Vices manifest themselves as irrational needs.
Irrational needs are in our power. They are evil. A need that is in our power is a lack of something desired. A need is irrational if it requires something not in our power, something external to and not in the purview of moral character. A need is irrational when it involves false judgment about what is good or evil (see G. Sterling).
Irrational needs are vices. Vices are based on false values. The source of every vice is a false judgment of what is good or evil.
The idealized image is a rationalization and glorification of the irrational needs, or vices, which have developed (compare Horney, pg. 277).
Needs for achievement, order, perfection, and control of external things are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need achievement, order, perfection, and control of things external to moral character. Idealized Image
Social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need acceptance. Need to avoid rejection. Need to avoid significant interpersonal contact. Need to avoid criticism and disapproval. Need to avoid negative evaluation. Idealized Image
Distrust and suspiciousness of others are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need to avoid being subordinated. Need to avoid being exploited, harmed, or deceived by others. Need the loyalty of spouses, friends, and associates. Need the fidelity of one's spouse. Need to counter insults, injuries, or slights and attacks on character or reputation. Idealized Image
Emotionality and attention-seeking are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need the attention of others. Need to be attractive. Need help and guidance. Idealized Image
Cruel, demeaning, and aggressive behavior is in our power. It is evil. False Values. Need to dominate. Need power, authority, control, and responsibility. Idealized Image
Discomfort with close relationships is in our power. It is evil. False Values. Irrational cognition and behavior are in our power. They are evil. Need to avoid conforming and situations where conventional behavior is expected. Need to reject conventional explanations of phenomena and reality. Need to reject conventional emotional experience. Need to seek emotional experience, where the emotions are felt in all their intensity for their own sakes. Need to be free from roles and conformist explanations. Idealized Image
Feelings of inferiority, insecurity,and weakness are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Narcissistic compensations for feelings of inferiority, inadequacy, and weakness are in our power. They are evil. Need love, attention, approval, admiration, social recognition, status and prestige. Idealized Image
Fear of social relationships is in our power. It is evil. False Values. Need for isolation is in our power. It is evil. Need solitude. Need to avoid social relationships and intimacy. Idealized Image
Negative attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need to be free to do as they please. Need to avoid having to fulfill routine social and occupational tasks. Need to resist compulsory activity. Need to maintain a negative attitude. Idealized Image
False negative evaluations of current experience, the self, and the future are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Depressive cognition and behavior are in our power. They are evil. Need to maintain a negative and pessimistic attitude. Need to expect the worst. Need to value their current experience, themselves, and the future negatively. Idealized Image
Self-defeating behavior, avoiding or undermining pleasurable experiences, desiring situations or relationships in which one will suffer, and preventing others from helping are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need to be needed. Need to help others. Need to be loved and appreciated. Need to sacrifice themselves for others. Idealized Image
Needing to be taken care of, submissive and clinging behavior, and fear of separation are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need to be taken care of. Need to submit to and cling to some significant other. Need to avoid separation. Idealized Image
Grandiosity, the need for admiration, and lack of empathy are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need to be seen as unique and special. Need to be admired. Need high status, prestige, and importance. Need to associate with other high status individuals and institutions. Idealized Image
Disregard for and violation of the rights of others are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need to avoid being influenced by others. Need to disregard the norms of society. Need to be free to do what they want. Need excitement. Need action and change. Idealized Image
Idealization and devaluation of others in relationships, instability of self-image, or sense of self, emotional instability, and impulsivity are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need romance and relationships. Need pleasure and pleasurable experiences. Need to idealize and devalue the other in relationships. Idealized Image
False positive and false negative evaluations of current experience, the self, and the future are in our power. They are evil. False Values. Need pleasurable experiences. Need to experience passion. Need a fast paced exciting lifestyle. Need pleasure; need to avoid pain. Need constant activity. Need extreme and intense emotional experiences. Need to be highly productive and to produce high quality work. Need knowledge, skill, expertise, and mastery. Idealized Image
Common False Values
Karen Horney (1950). Neurosis and Human Growth. New York: W. W. Norton.
John M. Oldham and Lois B. Morris (1995).
The New Personality Self-Portrait: Why You Think, Work, Love, and Act the
Way You Do.
Rev. ed. New York: Bantam.
Keith Seddon (2005). Epictetus' Handbook and the Tablet of Cebes: Guides to Stoic Living. New York: Routledge.
Grant Sterling (2005). "Core Stoicism." International Stoic Forum.